- Medical treatment refers to treatment with drugs and follow–up with the urologist. It can be used for conditions like BPH, prostatis, etc.
- Open surgery refers to the traditional type of surgery that involves an incision in the skin. It is often used to treat cancer, and in the past, was commonly used to treat kidney stones; (though not any more).
- Endoscopic surgery refers to surgery through a telescope. This telescope is usually inserted through the urethra, and can be used for more severe cases of BPH, bladder cancer, and kidney stones.
- Laparoscopic surgery is a type of surgery that is done through tiny incisions in the skin (often no more than 1 cm long), and also uses a telescope and camera to view the inside of the patient. This is sometimes used for kidney operations and operations on the adrenal gland.
- Lithotripsy is a non–invasive form of treatment that has revolutionized the treatment of kidney stones. Shock waves from outside the body are used to break up kidney stones without an incision.
Urologists deal with ailments in many different ways. There are a number of different tests available to help diagnose various conditions, including: blood tests, like the now famous PSA cystoscopy (looking into the bladder with a small telescope), X–Ray tests like ultrasound, CAT scans, MRI, and IVP’s more specialized tests like urodynamics. Once a particular condition is diagnosed, treatment can include a number of options: