Obstetrics & Gynecology


Female Reproductive System Female Reproductive System is the most complex. Most of the women are unaware of their own bodies. The modern women should be aware of the anatomy of her reproductive system. Women are the one who has to provide nutrition, give birth and nourish her infant. Here we have explained the external parts as well as the internal parts of the female reproductive system. It is very important for every women and girl to understand the menstrual cycle, physiology of pregnancy, birth and lactation. Female Reproductive System External Genitalia The vulva consists of the mons veneris (mons pubis), the clitoris, the labia majora and labia minora, Vestibule which has four parts : The urethral opening, the vaginal opening, hymen and Opening of the Bartholin’s ducts. Mons Pubis This is a pad of fibro–fatty tissue in the pubic area. It is covered with pubic hair. The skin of this part is coarse. It contains sweat glands, sebaceous gland and hair follicle. Labia Majora These are two folds of skin and fat below the mons pubis. Labia majora are more prominent after childbirth and are closed in women who have not given birth. The surface is pigmented and hairy. The inner part contains sebaceous (sweat) glands and is hairless. They become atrophic in menopausal age and is very thin during puberty. Labia Minora These are two folds of skin which lie inside each labia majora. It contains sweat and sebaceous glands. They are more prominent before puberty. It has no hair. Clitoris This is a small, sensitive area in the females just as in males there is penis. It has a rich nerve supply. It plays an important part in female arousal during sex. Vestibule This is a triangular area which extends from the labia minora and the Hymen. Hymen The hymen closes the vaginal opening partially. It has a small outlet for the passage of blood. In some cases, the outlet through which blood can pass at puberty is not there. This leads to the accumulation of blood in the vagina. This condition is a type of amenorrhea (absence of periods) and it requires medical attention. The hymen is usually ruptured during sex. However, gymnastic exercise and horse riding may also rupture the hymen. After childbirth, it more or less disappears. A woman who has never had sex has an unruptured hymen and this state is commonly referred to as virginity. Bartholin’s Glands These are two glands which are 1–1.5 cm in size and are yellowish white in color. They lie deep inside the vestibular bulb. The glands produce special watery secretions during coitus.