Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the parasite called Plasmodia. It is transmitted by Female Anopheles Mosquito. An. culicifecies in Rural area & An. stephensi in urban area.
Vectors of Malaria
- There are many vectors of malaria
- Anopheles culicifacies is the main vector of malaria
It is a small to medium sized mosquito with Culex like sitting posture
1. Feeding habits
2. Resting habits
- It is a zoophilic species
- When high densities build up relatively large numbers feed on men
3. Breeding places
- Rests during daytime in human dwellings and cattlesheds.
4. Biting time
- Breeds in rainwater pools and puddles, borrowpits, river bed pools, irrigation channels, seepages, rice fields, wells, pond margins, sluggish streams with sandy margins.
- Extensive breeding is generally encountered following monsoon rains.
- Biting time of each vector species is determined by its generic character,but can be readily influenced by environmental conditions.
Most of the vectors, including Anopheles culicifacies, start biting soon after dusk. Therefore, biting starts much earlier in winter than in summer but the peak time varies from species to species.
Life Cycle of Malaria Parasite
- Sporozoites in salivary gland.
- Oöcysts in stomach wall.
- Male and female gametocytes.
- Liver phase.
- Release of merozoites from liver.
- These enter red cells where both sexual and asexual cycles continue.