Laboratory Findings of Leptospirosis

Laboratory Findings
  • Total WBC count slightly elevated with neutrophilia.
  • Rising titer of leptospiral antibodies is found from the second week onwards.
  • Increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (about 60 mm).
  • Thrombocytopenia.
  • Increased serum creatinine.
  • Liver function tests usually denote hepatocellular damage with intrahepatic obstructive element.
  • Normo/hypokalemia.
  • Urinalysis with proteinuria.
  • Hematuria and casts.
  • Increase in serum bilirubin (predominantly direct) levels.
  • Alkaline phosphatase level moderately elevated, as well as SGOT and SGPT levels.
Diagnosis of Leptospirosis
  • The disease is diagnosed using specific blood tests available through public health laboratories.
  • In the first week of the disease, cultures from the blood or CSF are taken.
  • In the second week, cultures from the urine are taken.
  • Microscopic agglutination – two blood specimens must be serologically compared during an interval of two weeks, an initial titer of 1:100 or at least a fourfold rise in antibody titer confirm the diagnosis.
  • Macroscopic slide agglutination – ELISA, Dot – ELISA reveals detection of leptospiral IgM antibodies.